Our state’s water policies have evolved dramatically over the past 15 years, generally in a positive direction. This is evidenced by the growing acceptance of water conservation as an important means of addressing water demands. However, the current State Water Plan and water planning process do not fully take advantage of water conservation and drought response and fail to adequately address the needs of fish, wildlife and the environment.
Revise water demand projections
Currently, the State bases its water demand projections on the amount of water that would be needed during the drought of record to meet all the same water demands that exist during wet years. This approach needs to be refined.
Moving forward, projections should be revised to reflect actual water needs, rather than the various water “demands” that may be unrealistic to meet in future drought years. The current method leads to excessive water demand projects, over planning and excessive cost estimates. Simply incorporating rational drought management into the water planning process will lead to more realistic and cost effective plans for regions and the state as a whole.
In addition, when the Texas Water Development Board develops its population and water demand projections, the board needs to closely evaluate the relationship between the cost of water and its effect on long-term demand. The current planning process often treats demand as a static concept and does not adjust forecasts to account for rising water prices or changes in patterns of water use beyond basic plumbing code changes.
One positive step is that new water demand projections now include the expected savings from new efficiency standards for clothes washers and dishwashers.
Plan for all water needs
The State Water Plan should be revised to include all types of water needs – including the need for water to support the health of our rivers and bays as well as commercial and recreational fishing, river and coastal tourism, and other businesses that depend on healthy and productive rivers and bays for their survival.
Failing to plan to meet those environmental water needs results in an incomplete water plan that threatens our natural heritage. The Texas Water Development Board and the regional water planning groups must recognize and include water for healthy rivers and bays as a valid user group whose needs are planned for and met.
When evaluating proposed new water supply projects, the current water plans assume that some level of environmental flow restriction will be included in any new surface water permit to help limit the harm caused. Although that is an appropriate reflection of existing law, it doesn’t begin to assess the extent to which increased use of water under existing permits and projects will harm the health of rivers and bays or what proactive measures are needed to keep them healthy.
Consider the energy-water nexus
The push for energy efficiency is accelerating, and reliance on non-water-using renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is expanding. Because almost 50% of all U.S. water withdrawals are for power generation, ensuring accurate projections in this area is critical for long-term water planning.
Prepare for a changing climate
Climate change will likely have an increased impact on traditional water management strategies. The 2012 State Water Plan proposes $53 billion worth of water management strategies, most of which are likely to be adversely impacted by hydrologic changes associated with climate change. The 2012 State Water Plan includes a discussion about future climate variability and acknowledges the need for additional study to better understand likely impacts of a changing climate on water availability in various parts of Texas. However, it is unclear from that discussion if such studies will be undertaken in order to better inform planning assumptions.
The Texas Water Development Board and the regional water planning groups need to address the issue of climate change and prepare state and regional water plans based on an acknowledgement that:
Read more about climate change in Texas in the 2006 Environmental Defense report Fair Warning: Global Warming and the Lone Star State.
Adopt a strategic funding approach
The State should establish clear metrics for determining which water infrastructure projects in the State Water Plan merit state financial assistance. Whatever the ultimate source of state funds may be, it is essential to establish an effective screening process so that money is used efficiently. The metrics should reflect the following principles:
In addition, any ongoing state water funding mechanism should dedicate a reasonable amount of funds to implement voluntary, on-the-ground measures to help keep rivers flowing and provide freshwater inflows to bays and estuaries. Any funding mechanism should also ensure that one-third of available funds are actually used for the implementation of effective water conservation programs and water reuse projects, with no more than half of that money allocated to reuse.
House Bill 4, passed in the spring 2013 and approved by voters that fall, calls for devoting at least one-fifth of funding for conservation and reuse. That is a good start, but a concerted effort is needed to make that proposed allocation a reality and to ensure that programs to improve actual water efficiency are not short-changed in favor of reuse projects.